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Geo 106 Ryerson Essay Definition

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Presentation on theme: "The Geography of Everyday Life Lower Level Liberal Study"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Geography of Everyday Life Lower Level Liberal Study

2 “It’s not true that dogs see only in black and white.
Dogs see what they want to see.”You are your own dog.

3 COURSE ADMINISTRATION
What, Who, Where, When.Expectations.

4 WHAT, WHO, WHEREGeography 106 The Geographies of Everyday Life Dr. Philip Coppack Jorgenson Course Outline is on the course website THIS IS NOT A BRIGHTSPACE SITE! DO NOT ASK ME THIS AGAIN.INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE"We make a map of our experience patterns, an inner model of the outer world, and we use this to organise our lives“Gyorgy Kepes, The New Landscape in Art and Science, pp18-22, 1956.This course is a bit strange, and not a lot like the geography you are probably used to. It deals with the concept of environment, but not the interpretation you probably have of it. It deals with behaviour - yours and others and why you do what you do. It deals with perception - how you view the world, and how these perceptions shape city environments. Most of all, it deals with relativism: how we can all witness the same event, but have differing views of it depending on the many filters through which we view those events. Furthermore, it deals with how we use those perceptions, most times unknowingly, to make decisions - large and small - that comprise our lives and affect other people's lives.The world is comprised of a multitude of environments that exist at different scales. These scales range from personal space to neighbourhoods, communities (both towns and cities), regions, nations and the world itself. These environments are in turn shaped by people's behaviour, and this behaviour is in turn governed by the decisions made by individuals and groups of individuals (populations). The types of decisions people make are dictated by their cultural, economic, political, social, gender, sexual, and religious backgrounds, as well as their relative intellectual abilities to make decisions and the quantity and quality of information at their disposal. These differing backgrounds give rise to differing perceptions of similar events, issues and environments - indeed of life itself. In turn, these differing perceptions generate different interpretations of, and actions toward, environments, that in turn impact how these environments appear (both perceptually and physically).In this course we will be examining many aspects of this complex web of relative processes. Our goal is to peel back the many layers of the city environment, to demonstrate that it is actually comprised of many environmental interpretations. Some of these are obvious, others not so obvious. But even though it may be obvious how something looks, it is often not obvious how it got to look that way - as you will find out.If you could peel back the layers of the city, they would be countless, arranged and conceived of by each of us according to our perceptions, from each of us according to our cognitive processes, to each of us according to the way others view us. None are wrong interpretations and none are right; they are just different. Some of the layers affect us all of the time and all of the layers affect us some of the time. Each of itself can be conceived of clearly when it is slipped from the deck and played out. But together, the stack of layers (Figure I) creates the game we call the city that is pregnant with permutations.The following pages suggest the structure of the course and the types of material at which we will be looking. Figure II summarises and connects many of the concepts dealt with in the course. This figure should become your "road map" for the course. Refer back to it often. Because it is a road map, you can start anywhere and move in any direction. While you may not understand it all at first, you will by the end of the course.Your geography - the spaces you occupy - is your primary reference point for locating yourself and your activities relative to all other happenings. As an infant you learned about geographic space by manipulating objects directly, by playing, by sucking on things, by screaming and assessing the reactions of other people. Gradually you learn that you are not the whole universe; for example, your parent doesn't feed you when you scream and you learn that they are not you. You learn your room and home are "like this", and are located "here" in relationship to other rooms and structures. As you grow, your space expands through direct experience to include other homes, your neighbourhood, other neighbourhoods, large areas of your city, town or region and a few select places your family visits. Through indirect experiences (family, friends, books, newspapers, magazine, radio, television, the Internet, etc) you learn about parts of your city, region, province, country, continent, globe and universe you have never visited. All of these views are partial and incomplete.FIGURE 1: THE LAYERED CITYBy now you rarely think directly about geography. Yet you are constantly making geographical decisions and acting upon them. Where will I sit in this class? in the movies? at temple? Which stores and malls will I visit to buy a winter coat? a VCR? a car? Which clubs will I hang out in? Where in the club will I sit, stand or hang? Will I walk, blade, bike, take the TTC or take the car to shop? to travel to (Ryerson (RPU)? to travel to recreation? You are constantly behaving spatially, that is you act upon geographic decisions. And without realizing it you know a lot experientially about the concepts in this course.In order to show up for the first class you understood relative location, distance and direction from your starting place (eg home) to the classroom. You consulted your mental maps of the city and the campus, and transportation options ( especially in relationship to trip time). You might have noticed something new and revised those maps. You may have taken a longer path to avoid an undesirable area (e.g. construction zone, unsafe place, undesirable people). While on the subway and in class you use front country behaviour which indicates you understand the unwritten, as well as the written, rules of behaviour of those particular behavioural settings. While in the subway, for example, you follow the unwritten rules of (not) invading people's personal space (microterritory) by averting your eyes and apologizing for bumping into someone, and feel uncomfortable and anxious when others invade your personal space. As you moved through locations, they had meaning for you, or in geographic jargon possessed sense of place. Places on your journey had certain attractiveness drawing you to them (if only in memory, eg the Starbucks where you had that lovely latte with that amazing person eliciting topophilic daydreams). Others elicited topophobic avoidance due to their unattractiveness as crime sites, the apartment of your ex-lover or whatever. Your negotiation across these spaces as you move through your day created your time-space path for the day.Your ability to achieve these interactions across space depended, in part, upon your constraints : cognitive (eg. what options you knew about), capability (eg. your ability to access transportation), coupling (eg. the need to be at RPU in a specific room at a specific time) and authority (eg. the need for a TTC token). In addition, the attractiveness of various options and the friction of distance influenced these interactions, for example, influencing how early you left home and where you went for lunch between classes. The first seven chapters focus on these concepts, asking you (in particular, in the TRY THIS exercises) to investigate how they relate to your own life.Your geography focuses on “you” and “yours”. We all are, thus, egocentric, and as groups we are ethnocentric, nationalistic, human-centred. In so far as your geography focusses on YOU and your experiences (direct and indirect), your perception of the environment is strongly influenced by cognitive filters related to you (your attitudes, values, preferences, needs and desires and the reasons for being in that environment) and "yours" (i.e. the various sub-groups of society that your belong to and are relevant for the purpose at hand). Thus, your evaluation of experiences and environments are relative to your frame of reference and display distance decay with respect to both physical and cultural distance. Thus closeness, rather than breeding contempt, may lead to acceptance and a suggestion that this is how things should be, while physically and culturally distant environments are "exotic", the people are "ethnic", their clothes are "costumes", they speak with "accents", their culture is "under- or un-developed", their relative lack of (our) technological toys is "backward", and they are in general judged by us as "inferior".The spatial decisions of all the past and present people in the city jointly create the tangible, phenomenal (physical and built environments) and the less tangible, hidden (socioeconomic environments) spaces and places in the city. The existing phenomenal environment (ie things) is perceived of, and responded to, by individuals in response to their needs and desires in relationship to their individual personal environments and their understanding of the various contextual environments (ie sub-groups of society) that have influenced, and continue to influence, them. These responses in turn create new phenomenal and socioeconomic environments. The last five chapters discuss our attempts to understand and interpret internal city structure - neighbourhoods, the pattern of urban land uses, quality of life, and changes in those patterns - from both our understanding of the spatial behaviours discussed in the first seven chapters and our understanding of more macro processes operating in the urban environment.This book has three components : the text, READINGS and TRY THIS exercises. The text presents the major concepts covered in this course. The READINGS present additional related material, generally in the form of short stories and poems that illustrate particular concepts. The READINGS are referred to in the text (and often in TRY THIS exercises) and are for the whole text are found after Chapter 12. The titles of the TRY THIS exercises are inserted into the text in a box. The complete set of TRY THIS exercises is found after the set of READINGS forming the last section of this book.FIGURE I : THE LAYERED TORONTO

5 What the website looks like… Useful Text if you need one:
Carlson E. and Coppack P.M. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life. Toronto: McGraw Hill.This was developed from original lecture notes for the course. It is not required, nor will you likely find them in the bookstore. Get a second hand copy if you need a text.

6 WHEN MON TUES WED THURS FRI 9-10 Section 021 Lecture TRS 3176 GEO 161
10-11LECTURESection 011Lecture DSQ 2311-12Sec 011Self Study12-1OFFICE1-22-3Sec 021GEO1613-4LABSYou’re on your own here!

7 F is ‘Forever’ Friday, November 14th.
WHENF is ‘Forever’ Friday, November 14th.Final date to withdraw from an undergraduate program (OR COURSE) for the Fall 2015 term in good Academic Standing (no refund of Fall 2015 fees).

8 Evaluation www.geography.ryerson.ca/coppack/geo106 Evaluation
Course ComponentWeightMid Term (multiple choice questions)30%Essay (approx words)40%Final Exam (multiple choice and short essay)Mid term is 50 multiple choice questions.Essay is 1,200 words. Details are in the course outline.Final exam is 40 multiple choice questions and a short essay.All dates for all assessments are in the course outline.

9 A Few Words About Grades
Arithmetic mean = 66.2%Standard deviation = 9.6% n = 315All ‘Fs’ were missing one or more grade components. Some had forgotten to drop the course.

10 A Few More Words About Expectations
This is university – expectations are high.University grades are, on average, about a full letter below what you could expect in high school, because:Only the best make it here.Your course loads are higher.The material is more difficult.Your professors expect more. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/high-school-grade-inflation-balloon-ready-to-pop/article /DO NOT EXPECT YOUR LIBERAL STUDIES COURSES TO BE A BREAK FROM ‘REAL’ COURSES.THIS IS AS REAL AS IT GETS.This course should be treated like any of your courses.Take it seriously.

11 To ‘C’ Or Not To ‘C’The ABCs of university also differ from those of your high schools.An ‘A’ in university means outstanding.It does not mean good.It means that you have excelled far beyond what would be expected for your level in content, depth, and presentation.A ‘B’ in university means good.It does not mean satisfactory.It means that you have done what you were asked to do and you have done it well.A ‘C’ in university means satisfactory.It means that you have done more or less what you were asked to do and no more.

12 ESSAY TOPICS AVAILABLE
LECTURE SCHEDULEWEEKWEEK OFTOPIC1(Labour Day) Sept 7-12ESSAY TOPICS AVAILABLE1. Introduction to the Course- course mechanics- course overview: what you can expect2Sept 14-182. Spatial Concepts and Spatial Dynamics- geographic concepts; distance, direction, location, place, scale- space, time, and space-time- proxemics3Sep 21-253. Environment and Perception- defining environments- perception and cognitive filtering- decision making- the ordering of experience

13 MID TERM TEST WORTH 30%, NO MAKE-UPS
4Sept 28-Oct 24. Mental Maps and Mental Images- definitions and nature- Lynch's model: nodes, landmarks, districts, paths, edges- development sequence of mental maps- designative and appraisive perceptions5Oct 5-95. Place and Placelessness- sense of place and placelessness- topophilia and topophobia, safety of place- soundscapes and smellscapes- amenity environments, vernacular landscapes, marketingPlaces6Oct 12-16R E A D I N G W E E K 7Oct 19-23MID TERM TEST WORTH 30%, NO MAKE-UPSDO NOT MISS.MULTIPLE CHOICE – SCANTRON ANSWER SHEETS – 1.5 HOURS.TO BE DONE IN THE TWO HOUR LECTURE TIMELECTURES 1 – 6 INCLUSIVE

14 IN YOUR SECTION’S LECTURE.
8Oct 26-306. Territory and Territoriality- personalization and defence- home, neighbourhood- examples of territoriality9Nov 2-67. Time, Space, and Time-Space- the organisation of time- time-space totality, prisms, paths, convergence and distantiation- constraints - cognitive, capability, coupling, control(authority)10Nov 9-13ESSAY DUEIN YOUR SECTION’S LECTURE.8. Spatial Interaction- definitions and roles- activity space and journey to work- residential search behaviour- distance decay and gravity models in retailing (marketing geography)

15 11Nov 16-20Friday, November 2010. Urbanization- defining urban- urban growth and urbanization- urbanization processes: economic, demographic and socialFinal date to withdraw from an undergraduate program for the Fall 2015 term in good Academic Standing (no refund of Fall 2015 fees).12Nov 23-2711. Form and Structure in the City- bid rent theory- the role of transportation technology in city form- models of internal structure: concentric ring, sector, multiple nuclei12. Design for Human Activities- adaptive and integrative environments- neighbourhood design13Nov 30-Dec 412. Groups of People in Cities- urban ecology, social area analysis, factorial ecology- spatial patterns of social dimensions13. Quality of Life- definitions- indicators and patternsReview

16 TUESDAY AND THURSDAY ONE HOUR CLASSES
WE WILL NOT BE HAVING CLASSES TUESDAY FOR SECTION 021 AND THURSDAY FOR SECTION 011 EXCEPT FOR THIS WEEK.You will use the Tuesday and Thursday slots to do self study exercises.The exercises will not be graded but will show up on your terms tests and the final.The course outline has a schedule of Tuesdays and Thursdays and what you need to be doing.

17 GEOGRAPHY 106 – SELF STUDY SCHEDULE FOR FALL 2014
Self –study takes place in the one hour lecture slots for your section.This schedule outlines what you will be doing on your own or in class during the one hour slots each week this semester.WEEK #WEEK OFTOPIC OF THE WEEK AND WHAT YOU ARE TO DOARE YOU IN CLASS?1Sept 7TOPIC: Introduction to the CourseDO: Introduction lectureYES2Sept 14TOPIC: Spatial Concepts and Spatial DynamicsDO: Self-study Exercise #1 (see list below)NO3Sept 21TOPIC: Environment and PerceptionDO: Self-study Exercise #2 (see list below)4Sept 28TOPIC: Mental Maps and Mental ImagesDO: Self-study exercise #3 (see list below)5Oct 5TOPIC: Place and PlacelessnessDO: Self-study exercise #4 (see list below)6Oct 12R E A D I N G W E E K O C T O B E R7Oct 19STUDY FOR MID TERM TEST8Oct 26Territory and Territoriality: DO: Self Study Exercise #5Self Study Exercises

18 Self Study Exercises 8 Nov 2 TOPIC: Time, Space, and Time-Space
DO: Self-study exercise #6 (see list below)NO9Nov 9TOPIC: Spatial InteractionDO: Watch six short YouTube videos:1: U.S. Air Traffic flows2: U.K. Air Traffic ‘Highways’3. The U.K. National Electricity Grid4. English Channel Shipping:5: Mapping epidemics6. Stuxnet10Nov 16TOPIC: UrbanizationDO: Self-study exercise #7 (see list below)11Nov 23TOPIC: Form and Structure of the CityDO: Watch William Whyte’s movie The Social Life of Small Urban Places on Vimeo:12Nov 30DO: Play with Toronto’s Well Being:Self Study Exercises

19 COURSE PROJECT

20 GEOGRAPHICAL INVESTIGATION OF AN ASPECT OF EVERYDAY LIFE DUE DATE:
ESSAY ASSIGNMENT:GEOGRAPHICAL INVESTIGATION OF AN ASPECT OF EVERYDAY LIFEDUE DATE:IN YOUR SECTION’S LECTURE DURING THE WEEK INDICATED ON THE COURSE OUTLINE.1. Mental Maps of Downtown Toronto.2. Neighbourhoods of Toronto.3. Time-Space Analysis.Late Penalty for the Essay:The essay should be handed in directly to the instructor in hard copy at the beginning of class on the day specified on the essay assignment outline. There is a late penalty of 2% per calendar day which will be enforced once the lecture begins.

21 THE MATERIAL

22 Now, what’s this course about and is it worth staying in it?
This course weaves together…Environmentbut not the interpretation you probably have of it.Behaviouryours and others and why you do what you do.Perceptionhow you and others view the world, and how these perceptions shape urban environments.Relativismhow we can all witness the same event, but have differing views of it depending on the many cognitive filters through which we view those events.Scalehow we judge size, area, distance in relative and absolute terms, and act upon those decisions.

23 “Everything, in retrospect, is obvious.”
"We make a map of our experience patterns, an inner model of the outer world, and we use this to organise our lives”Gyorgy Kepes, 1956“Everything, in retrospect, is obvious.”AnonymousINTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE"We make a map of our experience patterns, an inner model of the outer world, and we use this to organise our lives“Gyorgy Kepes, The New Landscape in Art and Science, pp18-22, 1956.This course is a bit strange, and not a lot like the geography you are probably used to. It deals with the concept of environment, but not the interpretation you probably have of it. It deals with behaviour - yours and others and why you do what you do. It deals with perception - how you view the world, and how these perceptions shape city environments. Most of all, it deals with relativism: how we can all witness the same event, but have differing views of it depending on the many filters through which we view those events. Furthermore, it deals with how we use those perceptions, most times unknowingly, to make decisions - large and small - that comprise our lives and affect other people's lives.The world is comprised of a multitude of environments that exist at different scales. These scales range from personal space to neighbourhoods, communities (both towns and cities), regions, nations and the world itself. These environments are in turn shaped by people's behaviour, and this behaviour is in turn governed by the decisions made by individuals and groups of individuals (populations). The types of decisions people make are dictated by their cultural, economic, political, social, gender, sexual, and religious backgrounds, as well as their relative intellectual abilities to make decisions and the quantity and quality of information at their disposal. These differing backgrounds give rise to differing perceptions of similar events, issues and environments - indeed of life itself. In turn, these differing perceptions generate different interpretations of, and actions toward, environments, that in turn impact how these environments appear (both perceptually and physically).In this course we will be examining many aspects of this complex web of relative processes. Our goal is to peel back the many layers of the city environment, to demonstrate that it is actually comprised of many environmental interpretations. Some of these are obvious, others not so obvious. But even though it may be obvious how something looks, it is often not obvious how it got to look that way - as you will find out.If you could peel back the layers of the city, they would be countless, arranged and conceived of by each of us according to our perceptions, from each of us according to our cognitive processes, to each of us according to the way others view us. None are wrong interpretations and none are right; they are just different. Some of the layers affect us all of the time and all of the layers affect us some of the time. Each of itself can be conceived of clearly when it is slipped from the deck and played out. But together, the stack of layers (Figure I) creates the game we call the city that is pregnant with permutations.The following pages suggest the structure of the course and the types of material at which we will be looking. Figure II summarises and connects many of the concepts dealt with in the course. This figure should become your "road map" for the course. Refer back to it often. Because it is a road map, you can start anywhere and move in any direction. While you may not understand it all at first, you will by the end of the course.Your geography - the spaces you occupy - is your primary reference point for locating yourself and your activities relative to all other happenings. As an infant you learned about geographic space by manipulating objects directly, by playing, by sucking on things, by screaming and assessing the reactions of other people. Gradually you learn that you are not the whole universe; for example, your parent doesn't feed you when you scream and you learn that they are not you. You learn your room and home are "like this", and are located "here" in relationship to other rooms and structures. As you grow, your space expands through direct experience to include other homes, your neighbourhood, other neighbourhoods, large areas of your city, town or region and a few select places your family visits. Through indirect experiences (family, friends, books, newspapers, magazine, radio, television, the Internet, etc) you learn about parts of your city, region, province, country, continent, globe and universe you have never visited. All of these views are partial and incomplete.FIGURE 1: THE LAYERED CITYBy now you rarely think directly about geography. Yet you are constantly making geographical decisions and acting upon them. Where will I sit in this class? in the movies? at temple? Which stores and malls will I visit to buy a winter coat? a VCR? a car? Which clubs will I hang out in? Where in the club will I sit, stand or hang? Will I walk, blade, bike, take the TTC or take the car to shop? to travel to (Ryerson (RPU)? to travel to recreation? You are constantly behaving spatially, that is you act upon geographic decisions. And without realizing it you know a lot experientially about the concepts in this course.In order to show up for the first class you understood relative location, distance and direction from your starting place (eg home) to the classroom. You consulted your mental maps of the city and the campus, and transportation options ( especially in relationship to trip time). You might have noticed something new and revised those maps. You may have taken a longer path to avoid an undesirable area (e.g. construction zone, unsafe place, undesirable people). While on the subway and in class you use front country behaviour which indicates you understand the unwritten, as well as the written, rules of behaviour of those particular behavioural settings. While in the subway, for example, you follow the unwritten rules of (not) invading people's personal space (microterritory) by averting your eyes and apologizing for bumping into someone, and feel uncomfortable and anxious when others invade your personal space. As you moved through locations, they had meaning for you, or in geographic jargon possessed sense of place. Places on your journey had certain attractiveness drawing you to them (if only in memory, eg the Starbucks where you had that lovely latte with that amazing person eliciting topophilic daydreams). Others elicited topophobic avoidance due to their unattractiveness as crime sites, the apartment of your ex-lover or whatever. Your negotiation across these spaces as you move through your day created your time-space path for the day.Your ability to achieve these interactions across space depended, in part, upon your constraints : cognitive (eg. what options you knew about), capability (eg. your ability to access transportation), coupling (eg. the need to be at RPU in a specific room at a specific time) and authority (eg. the need for a TTC token). In addition, the attractiveness of various options and the friction of distance influenced these interactions, for example, influencing how early you left home and where you went for lunch between classes. The first seven chapters focus on these concepts, asking you (in particular, in the TRY THIS exercises) to investigate how they relate to your own life.Your geography focuses on “you” and “yours”. We all are, thus, egocentric, and as groups we are ethnocentric, nationalistic, human-centred. In so far as your geography focusses on YOU and your experiences (direct and indirect), your perception of the environment is strongly influenced by cognitive filters related to you (your attitudes, values, preferences, needs and desires and the reasons for being in that environment) and "yours" (i.e. the various sub-groups of society that your belong to and are relevant for the purpose at hand). Thus, your evaluation of experiences and environments are relative to your frame of reference and display distance decay with respect to both physical and cultural distance. Thus closeness, rather than breeding contempt, may lead to acceptance and a suggestion that this is how things should be, while physically and culturally distant environments are "exotic", the people are "ethnic", their clothes are "costumes", they speak with "accents", their culture is "under- or un-developed", their relative lack of (our) technological toys is "backward", and they are in general judged by us as "inferior".The spatial decisions of all the past and present people in the city jointly create the tangible, phenomenal (physical and built environments) and the less tangible, hidden (socioeconomic environments) spaces and places in the city. The existing phenomenal environment (ie things) is perceived of, and responded to, by individuals in response to their needs and desires in relationship to their individual personal environments and their understanding of the various contextual environments (ie sub-groups of society) that have influenced, and continue to influence, them. These responses in turn create new phenomenal and socioeconomic environments. The last five chapters discuss our attempts to understand and interpret internal city structure - neighbourhoods, the pattern of urban land uses, quality of life, and changes in those patterns - from both our understanding of the spatial behaviours discussed in the first seven chapters and our understanding of more macro processes operating in the urban environment.This book has three components : the text, READINGS and TRY THIS exercises. The text presents the major concepts covered in this course. The READINGS present additional related material, generally in the form of short stories and poems that illustrate particular concepts. The READINGS are referred to in the text (and often in TRY THIS exercises) and are for the whole text are found after Chapter 12. The titles of the TRY THIS exercises are inserted into the text in a box. The complete set of TRY THIS exercises is found after the set of READINGS forming the last section of this book.FIGURE I : THE LAYERED TORONTO